Links to External Resources

The external resources identified in this section are selected works of scholars, higher education associations, and higher education or athletics administrators.  If you have produced information or a study relevant to this topic that you would like to have posted, please go to the Contribute Content page to create a submission request.  The Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics does not necessarily endorse all of the recommendations or opinions expressed in these resources but supports engagement, dialogue and research by all stakeholders. 

Financial Integrity

  • Diverging Revenues, Cascading Expenditures, and Ensuing Subsidies: The Unbalanced and Growing Financial Strain of Intercollegiate Athletics on Universities and their Students.  Cheslock, J. & Knight, D. (2014). The research and paper was produced with grant support from the Knight Commission in 2012.  The paper was updated and was accepted for publication in the Journal of Higher Education.
  • Eye on the Ball:  Big-Time Sports Pose Growing Risks for Universities. Moody's Investor Services (2013, Oct. 10).  Moody’s Investors Service report on college sports finances states:  “Universities pursue high-profile sports programs for the opportunity to increase brand recognition, student demand, and donor support. However, that upside comes with financial and reputational risks that require careful oversight. As the commercial success of big-time college sports has grown, so too have the potential benefits and risks to universities.”
  • Academic spending versus athletic spending.  Who wins? (2013, Jan.)  The Delta Cost Project at the American Institutes for Research issued a brief that compares trends in academic and athletic spending.
  • A game change: Paying for big-time college sports.  Weaver, K. (2011).  In the January/February 2011 issue of Change, Weaver discusses the pressure for big-time athletic programs to generate new revenue streams. This article describes why that pressure has become so intense and trace those streams back to their origins in order to determine who pays for college sports — and at what cost.
  • Changing the game, Kirwan, W., and Turner, G. (2010). In the 2010 September/October issue of Trusteeship, read about how rising athletic expenses are becoming a destabilizing force for many institutions. William E. “Brit” Kirwan and R. Gerald Turner show you how the game is changing.
  • 2004-2012 NCAA Revenues and Expenses of Division I Intercollegiate Athletics Programs Report. Fulks, D., and NCAA Research Staff (2013). According to the NCAA, “this report provides valuable insight into the financial state of affairs in intercollegiate athletics and the changing environment in which college and university athletic programs operate.”
  • Revenues and Expenses, Profits and Losses of Division I-A Intercollegiate Athletics Programs Aggregated by Conference for 2003 Fiscal Year, Fulks, D. and NCAA Research Staff (2003).
    According to the NCAA, “this report provides summary information concerning revenues and expenses of NCAA Division I-A intercollegiate athletics programs for the period 1993 through 2002.
  • The Empirical Effects of Collegiate Athletics: Interim Report, Litan, Orszag, and Orszag (2001).
    This report states that it was commissioned by the NCAA to provide an independent examination of the empirical effects of college athletics, “with a particular focus on the financial effects."
  • The Empirical Effects of Collegiate Athletics: An Update. Orzag and Orszag (2003).
    According to this report, the NCAA commissioned this updated report to “address two concerns with the existing data at that time of the Interim Report’s release. First, the data suffered from poor measurement of capital expenditures and the capital stock used in collegiate athletics. A companion analysis addresses this concern. Second, the available data covered only an eight-year period. Using more recently available data, this update extends the analysis so that it covers a 10-year period.”
  • NCAA Financial Reports Database.
    According to the, this database is “the most detailed publicly available database of college athletic financial information assembled.”  The data was collected through freedom of information requests made to 215 public institutions that compete in Division I.  Financial data filed with the NCAA for the 2004-05 school year are presented for each individual school. The database allows users to “sort by category and conference, and to compare two schools.”  The data are reported as presented by the institutions “with no attempt to change or research anomalies.”
  • Equity in Athletics Data Analysis (EADA) Cutting Tool
    According to the EADA Web site,” this analysis tool was designed to provide rapid customized reports for public inquiries relating to equity in athletics data. This database consists of athletics data that are submitted annually as required by the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act (EADA), via a Web-based data collection, by all co-educational postsecondary institutions that receive Title IV funding (i.e., those that participate in federal student aid programs) and that have an intercollegiate athletics program."
  • Behind the Blue Disk: NCAA Budget, Revenue Distribution and Postseason Football and Championships Revenues
    This portion of the NCAA Web site explains the NCAA budget and how NCAA revenues are distributed. It also provides financial data for postseason football games certified by the NCAA.
  • Ultimate Sports Insider provides news, observations and commentary about college athletics with a particular focus on the relationship of athletics to higher education as a business and educational enterprise.